Adams, John. Old Square-Toes and His Lady. Victoria: Horsdal & Schubart, 2001.

Akrigg, G.P.V. and H. B. Akrigg. British Columbia Chronicle/ 1778-1846, Adventurers by Sea and Land. Vancouver: Discovery Press, 1975.

Barman, Jean. The West Beyond the West: A History of British Columbia. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1991.

Bowsfield, Hartwell, ed. Fort Victoria Letters, 1846-1851. Winnipeg, Manitoba: Hudson’s Bay Record Society, Volume XXXII, 1979.

Butler, Robert W. The Great Blue Heron. Vancouver: UBC Press, 1997.

Carr, Emily. The Book of Small. Toronto: Irwin Publishing, 1942.

Castle, Geoffrey. Victoria’s Landmarks, Victoria: Published by Geoffrey Castle and Barry F. King, 1985

Chaster, G.D., Ross, D.W., Warren, W.H. Trees of Greater Victoria: A Heritage. Victoria: Heritage Tree Book Society, 1988.

Corley-Smith, Peter. White Bears and Other Curiosities: The First 100 Years of the Royal British Columbia Museum. Victoria: Royal B.C. Museum, 1989.

Cranz, Galen. The Politics of Park Design: A History of Urban Parks in America. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1982.

Duff, Wilson. The Indian History of British Columbia--The Impact of the White Man. Victoria: Royal B. C. Museum, 1997.

Emberson, Alfred. All About Victoria. Victoria: Victoria Printing & Publishing Co., 1916.

Ewert, Henry. Victoria’s Streetcar Era. Victoria: Sono Nis, 1992.

Fisher, Robin. Contact and Conflict: Indian-European Relations in British Columbia, 1774-1890. Vancouver: UBC Press, 1992.

Glazebrook, G. P. de T., ed. The Hargrave Correspondence, 1821-1843. Toronto: The Champlain Society, 1938.

Grant, Peter. Victoria: A History in Photographs. Vancouver: Altitude Publishing, 1995.

Green, Valerie. No Ordinary People--Victoria’s Mayors Since 1862. Victoria: Beach Holme Publishers, 1992.

Hancocks, David. A Different Nature--The Paradoxical World of Zoos and Their Uncertain Future. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.

Harris, Cole. Making Native Space: Colonialism, Resistance, and Reserves in British Columbia. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2002.

Harris, Cole. The Resettlement of British Columbia: Essays on Colonialism and Geographical Change. Vancouver: UBC Press, 1997.

Helgesen, Marion I., ed. Footprints--Pioneer Families of the Metchosin District, Southern Vancouver Island, 1851-1900. Sponsored by the Metchosin School Museum Society, 1983.

Higgins, D. W. Passing of a Race and more Tales of Western Life, Toronto: William Briggs, 1905, pp. 34-48.

Keddie, Grant. Songhees Pictorial: A History of the Songhees People as Seen by Outsiders, 1790-1912. Victoria: Royal B.C. Museum, 2003.

Kuhlen, Daniel J. and edited by Anne Skarsgard. A Layperson’s Guide to Treaty Rights in Canada.Saskatoon: Native Law Centre, University of Saskatchewan, 1985.

Knight, Rolf. Indians at Work--An Informal History of Native Labour in British Columbia, 1858-1930. Vancouver: New Star Books, 1996.

Lovatt, Ronald. Shoot, Shoot, Shoot: A History of the Victoria-Esquimalt Coast Artillery Defences, 1878-1956. Victoria: Rodd Hill Friends Society, 1993.

Lutz, John. “‘Relating to the Country’: The Lekwammen and the Extension of European Settlement, 1843-1911,” in Ruth Sandwell, editor, Beyond the City Limits: Rural History in British Columbia.Vancouver: UBC Press, pp. 17-32, 1999.

Lutz, John. “Gender and Work in Lekwammen Families, 1843-1970,” in Kathryn McPherson, Cecilia Morgan and Nancy M. Forestell, editors, Gendered Pasts--Historical Essays in Feminity and Masculinity in Canada. Toronto: Oxford University Press, Chap. 5, pp. 80-105, 1999.

Luxton, Don, comp. and ed. Building the West: Early Architects of British Columbia. Vancouver: Talon Books, 2003.

Mackie, Richard Somerset. Trading Beyond the Mountains--The British Fur Trade on the Pacific 1793-1843. Vancouver: UBC Press, 1997.

Marc, Jacques F. Historic Shipwrecks of Southern Vancouver Island. Underwater Archaeology society of British Columbia, 1990, p. 36-39)

Minaker, Dennis. The Gorge of Summers Gone, A History of Victoria’s Inland Waterway.Victoria: Dennis Minaker, 1998.

Morton, Arthur S. A History of the Canadian West to 1870-71, Being a History of Rupert’s Land (The Hudson’s Bay Company Territory) and of the North-West Territory (Including the Pacific Slope). London: Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd., 1938.

Pethick, Derek. James Douglas: Servant of Two Empires. Vancouver: Mitchell Press Ltd., 1969.

Pethick, Derek. S. S. Beaver: The ship that saved the west. Vancouver: Mitchell Press, Ltd., 1970.

Pratt, Mary. Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation. New York: Routledge, 1992.

Randall, John M. & Marinelli, Janet, ed. Invasive Plants--Weeds of the Global Garden. Brooklyn, N.Y.: Brooklyn Botanic Garden Publications, Handbook #149, Winter, 1996.

Reksten, Terry. More English Than The English--A Very Social History of Victoria. Victoria: Orca Books, 1986.

Robinson, Leigh Burpee. Esquimalt: Place of Shoaling Water. Victoria: Quality Press, 1947.

Rogers, Fred. Shipwrecks of British Columbia, Vancouver: J. J. Douglas Ltd., 1973, p. 91-93.

Rosenzweig, Roy and Blackmar, Elizabeth. The Park and the People--A History of Central Park. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1992.

Scholefield, E.O.S. British Columbia From the Earliest Times to the Present, Vol I. Vancouver: S. J. Clarke Pub. Co., 1914.

Smith, Dorothy Blakey, ed. The Reminiscences of Dr. John Sebastian Helmcken. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, in co-operation with the Provincial Archives of British Columbia, 1975.

Sproat, Gilbert Malcolm. Scenes and Studies of Savage Life. London: Smith, Elder, 1868.

Stone, Ted. British Columbia History Along the Highways and Waterways. Red Deer, Alberta: Red Deer College Press, 1998.

Suttles, Wayne. Coast Salish Essays. Seattle: University of Washington Press and Vancouver: Talonbooks, 1987.

Turner, Nancy. Food Plants of British Columbia Indians, Part 1--Coastal Peoples. Vancouver: UBC Press and Royal British Columbia Museum, 1995.

Van Kirk, Sylvia. Many Tender Ties--Women in Fur-Trade Society, 1670-1870. Winnipeg, Manitoba: Watson Dwyer Pub., 1980.

Walbran, J. T. British Columbia Coast Names, 1592-1906. Vancouver: J. J. Douglas, 1971.

Wolferstan, Bill. Pacific Yachting’s Cruising Guide to the Gulf Islands and Vancouver Island from Sooke to Courtnay, Vancouver: Pacific Yachting, Interpress Publications, 1976, p. 94.

Wright, E. W., ed. Lewis & Dryden’s Marine History of the Pacific Northwest --An illustrated review of the growth and development of the maritime industry, from the advent of the earliest navigators to the present time, with sketches and portraits of a number of well known men. New York: Antiquarian Press, Ltd., 1961.

Yorath, C.J. and Nasmith, H. W. The Geology of Southern Vancouver Island: A Field Guide. Victoria: Orca Book Publishers, 1995.


Periodicals, booklets, newsletters and newspapers

Baron, Nancy and Backhouse, Frances. “Rare Butterflies of Southeastern Vancouver Island and the Gulf Islands.” BC Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, March 1999.

Brayshaw, T. Christopher. “The Elm Invasion of Beacon Hill Park.” Friends of Beacon Hill Park Newsletter February 2002: 3-4.

Brayshaw, T. Christopher. “Gravel Travels.” Friends of Beacon Hill Park Newsletter April 2003: 3.

Brayshaw, T. Christopher. “Sea Shore Erosion, August 2000.” Friends of Beacon Hill Park Newsletter October 2001: 4-5.

Burns, Flora Hamilton. “Victoria in the 1850's.” The Beaver December 1949: 36-39.

The Canadian Aids to Navigation System, Ottawa: Navigation Systems Branch, Ministry of Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 2001.

“The Census of Vancouver Island, 1855.” British Columbia Historical Quarterly 4 (1940): 51-58.

Cole, Douglas. “The Invented Indian/The Imagined Emily.” BC Studies 125/126 (Spring/Summer 2000): 147-162.

“The Company in Victoria.” (no author given) The Beaver September 1941: 4-9.

Danby, W. H. “Notes on Lepidoptera Found on Vancouver Island.” Journal New York Entomology Society Vol II (March 1894): 31-36.

Duff, Wilson. “The Fort Victoria Treaties.” BC Studies No. 3 (Fall 1969): 3-57.

Erickson, Wayne. “Garry Oak Ecosystems.” BC Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks October 1993.

Finlayson, Roderick. Biography of Roderick Finlayson Victoria 1891. (BC Archives: NW 971.IVi F 512).

Fletcher, James. “Entomological Record, 1901,” The Report of the Entomological Society, 19 (1901) 99-109.

Fletcher, Roy. “Recent Water Well Drilling in Beacon Hill Park.” Friends of Beacon Hill Park Society Newsletter November 2003: 9.

Flynn, Samantha. “Coastal Douglas-fir Ecosystems." BC Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks March 1999.

“The Founding of Victoria.” The Beaver Outfit 273 (March 1943):4-7. [Text of James Douglas 12 July 1842 Report]

Furniss, Elizabeth. “Pioneers, Progress and the Myth of the Frontier: The Landscape of Public History in Rural British Columbia.” BC Studies 115/116 (Autumn/Winter 1997-98): 7-44.

Harris, Cole and Barman, Jean. “Editorial.” BC Studies 115/116 (Autumn/Winter 1997-98): 3-6.

Harris, Cole. “Social Power and Cultural Change in Pre-Colonial British Columbia.” BC Studies 115/116 (Autumn/Winter 1997-98): 45-82.

Hendrickson, James E. “Two Letters from Walter Colquhoun Grant.” BC Studies 27 (Summer 1975): 3-15.

Hill, Barry. Relic From a Distant Temple--Victoria’s Chinese Bell. Victoria: Art Gallery of Greater Victoria, 1992.

Ireland, Willard E. “Captain Walter Colquhoun Grant: Vancouver Island’s First Independent Settler.” British Columbia Historical Quarterly XVII (Jan-April 1953): 87-125.

Keddie, Grant. “Native Indian Use of Beacon Hill Park.” (Note #14/88) Victoria: Royal British Columbia Museum 1988.

Lamb, W. Kaye. “The Founding of Fort Victoria.” British Columbia Historical Quarterly VII, No. 2 (April 1943) 71-92.

Lynn, Agnes. “Beacon Hill Park’s Biggest Trees.” Friends of Beacon Hill Park Society Newsletter (April 2003): 1-2.

Mackie, Richard, “The Colonization of Vancouver Island, 1849-58.” BC Studies 96 (Winter 1992-93): 3-40.

McDonald, Robert A. J. “‘Holy Retreat’ or ‘Practical Breathing Spot’?: Class Perceptions of Vancouver’s Stanley Park, 1910-1913." Canadian Historical Review, Vol. 65 (1984): 127-153.

Miskelly, James. “Butterflies At Risk And Beacon Hill Park.” Friends of Beacon Hill Park Newsletter (November 2003): 1-2.

O’Shaughnessy, Marie. “Bird Migration.” Victoria Naturalist Vol.60.2 Victoria Natural History Society (September-October 2003).

Sutherst, Jennifer. "Lost Streams of Victoria." South Islands Aquatic Stewardship Society and Fisheries and Oceans Canada May 2003.

Taylor, George W. “Notes on the Entomology of Vancouver Island.” The Canadian Entomologist XVI No. 4 London, Ontario (April 1881): 61-62.

Turner, Nancy J. “Where has all the Clover Gone? A tribute to B.C. botanist T.C. Brayshaw.” Botanical Electronic News (BEN) #226 (2 July 1999).

Van Kirk, Sylvia. “Tracing the Fortunes of Five Founding Families of Victoria.” BC Studies 115/116 (Autumn/Winter 1997/98): 149-180.

Wolfenden, Madge. “The Naming of Holland Point.” British Columbia Historical Quarterly, Vol. XVIII (Jan.-April, 1954): 117-121.

British Colonist December, 1858-June 30,1890

Daily Colonist July, 1890-August, 1980

Victoria Daily Chronicle May, 1863-June, 1866

Victoria Daily Times/Victoria Times June, 1884-July, 1980

Victoria Gazette / Daily Victoria Gazette 1858-1860

Victoria Times Colonist September, 1980-December, 2009

The Victorian January, 1971-December, 1975


City of Victoria Publications

“Achieving Peace in the Park: A Strategy to Restrict and Control Commercialism in Beacon Hill Park, Final Report,” The Beacon Hill Park Round Table, City of Victoria, February 2002.

“Beacon Hill Park, Annual Report 2002." City of Victoria, Parks, Recreation and Community Development Department, 29 January 2003.

“Beacon Hill Park, 1882-1982, A Brief History.” City of Victoria Parks Department, 1981.

“Beacon Hill Park Heritage Landscape Management Plan.” Commonwealth Historic Resource Management Ltd. Submitted to the City of Victoria May 2004

“Final Report: Beacon Hill Park Management Plan, Phase 1." AXYS Environmental Consulting Ltd., July 2001.

"Heritage Impact Study: Old Bandstand, Beacon Hill Park." Donald Luxton Associates, Inc. Submitted to the City of Victoria December, 2009.

“State of the Environment Report: Beacon Hill Park Management Plan, Phase I." AXYS Environmental Consulting Ltd., July 2001.

“Summary Report: Beacon Hill Park Management Plan, Phase 1." AXYS Environmental Consulting Ltd., July 2001.

Government of Canada Publications

Annual Reports, Department of Marine and Fisheries (DMF). Ottawa: 1874, 1891, 1897, 1898, 1900, 1901.

Unpublished Sources

Brayshaw, T. Christopher. “An Assessment of the Condition of Finlayson Point in Beacon Hill Park and a Comparison with Holland Point.” 19 July 2000.

Brayshaw, T. Christopher. “Beacon Hill Park--Concerns of a User.” Memorandum to the Friends of Beacon Hill Park and City of Victoria Parks Department. October 1991.

Brayshaw, T. Christopher.“Concerns Respecting the Proposed Illuminares 2000 Lantern Festivals--Playing with Fire.” 28 February 2000.

Brayshaw, T. Christopher. “The State of the Wild Plant Communities of Beacon Hill Park.” Report for the Friends of Beacon Hill Park, 15 January 2001.

Brayshaw, T. Christopher. “Wild Plants of Beacon Hill and Adjacent ‘Natural’ Areas, from Holland Point to Clover Point.” February 1993.

Deans, James. "A Traditional History of Vancouver Island." (Excerpts) BC Archives D-19 009.

Ireland, Willard E. “Memorandum re: Title to Beacon Hill Park, Victoria, British Columbia.” 8 May 1942 BC Archives G,V66,B35I.

Keddie, Grant. “Finlayson Point, Victoria, Heritage Resource Management of Sidewalk Construction, Report to the Archaeology Branch on Permit No. 1992-109,” March 30, 1993.

Lutz, John. “Preparing Eden: Aboriginal Land Use and European Settlement.” Paper presented to the Canadian Historical Association 1995.

Park Office files. 100 Cook Street, Victoria, BC.

Pemberton, Chartres Cecil. BC Archives ADD. MSS. 522, Vol. 1.

Warren, W. H., "Notes from W. H. Warren." Park Office files (1982+): 1-8.

Vennesland, Ross. "Summary Data on BHP Heron Colony, Great Blue Heron Breeding Colony Database." Ministry of Sustainable Resource Management, BC Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection 2002.


Legal Documents and Judicial Rulings

Begbie, J.C. August, 30, 1884. Anderson v. Corporation of City of Victoria and others and the Attorney-General v. Corporation of City of Victoria and others. Supreme Court of British Columbia. British Columbia Law Reports. Victoria, 1893: vol. I., part ii, 107-112.

The Trust, 1882. Order-in-Council No. 35 of 1882.

“An Act to amend the ‘Public Parks Act, 1876." Statutes of the Province of British Columbia 1881. (44 Vict. C. 18): 45-46.

Wilson, Hon. R.D. 8 October 1998 "City of Victoria vs. Capital Region Festival Society and the Attorney General of British Columbia." Reasons for Judgment.

City of Victoria Archival Records

Annual Reports of the City of Victoria 1884-1949. CRS 16.

Annual Report of the Parks Department 1931-1969. CRS 108.

Parks & Boulevard Committee Minutes 1923-1931. CRS 76 3 B 3.

Park Committee Minutes 1956-1959. CRS 107.

Park Committee Reports to Council, City Clerk’s Office Series MAN-4, Committee’s Reports, 1885-1956. CRS 4 (7E1-7E9, 7F1-7F9, 8A1-8A9, 8B1-8B4, 18E1-18E6).

Park Department Files. CRS106 (12F1-4).



Beacon Hill Park Surplus Acreage. Victoria Engineering and Planning Digital Map. 1995. City of Victoria.

Blair Plan: University of Victoria. G 3514.54 V52B4 Drawer SC6.

Blair Plan: BC Archives. CM/D53.

"Historical Garry Oak Ecosystems of Greater Victoria and Saanich Peninsula Map." Ecosystem mapping by Ted Lea, Terrestrial Information Branch, British Columbia Ministry of Sustainable Resource Management. Victoria 2003.

"Lost Streams of Victoria." Jennifer Sutherst. South Islands Aquatic Stewardship Society and Fisheries and Oceans Canada. May, 2003.

"Map, Town of Victoria." 1861. J. D. Pemberton. BC Archives CM/B275.

"Map of the City of Victoria." 1886. T.N. Hibben & Co. BC Archives CM/ B1528 1-2.

"Map of Victoria." 1863. Waddington, Kutchel, Crease. BC Archives CM/B272.

"Native Plants Zones of Beacon Hill Park." Victoria Parks and Recreation. Undated.



Park map showing ecosystems and roads
(Click on each ecosystem listed to colour the corresponding map section)

Jim Chapman - Beacon Hill Park Photo Collection

Description of park ecosystems

Victoria Natural History Society - Useful Victoria website links

Dr. John Lutz (UVic History Dept) - Home Page

Viewpoint - Dr. John Lutz and Joel Freeman

Songhees Walk Tour

B.C. Supreme Court Justice R. D. Wilson 1998 ruling